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Lucknow District (Hindi: लखनऊ ज़िला, Urdu: لکھنؤ ضلع‎) is the capital city of the state Uttar Pradesh and is the largest city in Uttar Pradesh[7]. City is famous for its courtly mannerism, refinement, mouthwatering cuisine, art, music and poetry patronized by Persian loving shia nawabs of the city. This metro city is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division. Lucknow has 8 state assembly seats namely Lucknow East, Lucknow west, Lucknow North, Lucknow Central, Lucknow Cantt, Sarojni Nagar, MohanlalGanj(Schedule Cast), Bakshi ka talab. In addition it has 2 Parliamentary constituencies namely Lucknow and Mohanlalganj.  Lucknow has always been known as a multicultural city, and flourished as a cultural and artistic capital of North India in the 18th and 19th centuries.[1]

Located on 26° 30’-27° 10’ North latitude and 80° 30’-81° 13’ East longitude, Lucknow is situated 123 meters above sea level. Lucknow is spread over an area of 2528 sq.km is surrounded by Barabanki on East, Unnao West, Raebareily on south, Sitapur and Hardoi districts on north. The birth place of Sir Cliff Richard and the resident city of business tycoon Mr. Subrato Roy, is famous for historical buildings constructed in the times of Nawabs and is now thriving and an important centre for commerce, aerospace, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, tourism, music and poetry.[3]

History

Avadh is claimed to be among the most ancient of Hindu states. According to popular legend, the city is named after Lakshmana, a hero of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana. Ramchandra of Ayodhya, the hero of the Ramayana, gifted the territory of Lucknow to his devoted brother Lakshman after he had conquered Sri Lanka and completed his term of exile in the jungle. Therefore, people say that the original name of Lucknow was Lakshmanpur, popularly known as Lakhanpur or Lachmanpur.

From 1350 onwards, Lucknow and parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, the British East India Company (EIC) and the British Raj. Lucknow was one of the major centres of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and actively participated in India's independence movement, emerging as a strategically important North Indian city.

After the conquest of Kanauj by the Afghans at the end of the twelfth century, Avadh submitted to the Sultan of Ghazni, and so became part of the empire of Delhi. Avadh then asserted its independence for a while under a Muslim ruler, but he was over- thrown by Babur, and Avadh became a subah or province of the Moghul Empire. 

As the Moghul power declined and the emperors lost their paramountcy and they became first the puppets and then the prisoners of their feudatories, so Avadh grew stronger and more independent. Its capital city was Faizabad. The City was established in 1775 as the nawab of Awadh moved his capital from Faizabad to Lucknow.

Of all the Muslim states and dependencies of the Moghul Empire, Avadh had the newest royal family. They were descended from a Persian adventurer called Sadat Khan, originally from Khurasan in Persia. There were many Khurasanis in the service of the Moghuls, mostly soldiers, and if successful, they could hope for rich rewards. Sadat Khan proved to be amongst the most successful of this group. In 1732, he was made governor of the province of Avadh. His original title was Nazim, which means Governor, but soon he was made Nawab. In 1740, the Nawab was called Wazir or vizier, which means Chief Minister, and thereafter he was known as the NawabWazir. In practice, from Sadat Khan onwards, the titles had been hereditary, though in theory they were in the gift of the Moghul emperor, to whom allegiance was paid. A nazar, or token tribute, was sent each year to Delhi, and members of the imperial family were treated with great deference: two of them actually lived in Lucknow after 1819, and were treated with great courtesy.

Awadh Rulers:

Saadat Khan, Burhan-ul-Mulk        (1720-1739)

Abdul Mansur Khan Safdar Jung   (1739-1754)

Shuja-ud-Daula                                 (1754-1775)

Asaf-ud-Daula                                   (1775-1797)

Wazir Ali                                             (1797-1798)

Saadat Ali Khan                                 (1798-1814)

Gbazi-ud-din Haider                         (1814-1819)

Nasir-ud-din-Haider                          (1827-1837)

Muhammad Ali Shah                        (1837-1842)

Amjad Ali Shah                                   (1842-1847)

Wajid Ali Shah                                     (1847-1856)

Demography[5]

As per 2011 census Lucknow has a population of 4,588,455. Out of which 2407897 are males and 2180558 are females.  Rural population is 1550737. Population density is 1816 inhabitants per sq. km. The sex ratio is 917 females per 1000 males. School age kids are 11% (543641) of the population.

The population growth rate is 25.79% in the period of 2001-2011. The district has a literacy rate of 73.3% and is ranked 6th in the country.Lucknow has household density of 362 (houses/sq. km)

Lucknow witnesses culmination of several religions. With Hindus in majority, Muslims also share decent percentage of population. Christians, Sikhs and Bengalis are other components of population in Lucknow.

There are 78.7% permanent houses and 70% houses have electricity connections and 8.3 %have internet connections.

Administration, Offices and Officials[1][2]

  • District Magistrate

The District Collector is the district head of administration of the bureaucracy in a state of India. A district is governed by a District Collector, who is an officer from Indian Administrative Service (IAS) of Uttar Pradesh cadre and is appointed by the State Government of UttarPradesh. Functionally the district administration is carried on through the various Departments of the State Government each of which has an office of its own in the district level. The District Collector is the executive leader of the district administration and the District Officers of the various Departments in the district render technical advice to him in the discharge of his duties.

Gaurishankar Priyadarshi is the Present District Magistrate incharge of Lucknow.(As of May,2017)

  • ADM (Additional District Magistrate)

ADM is second top administrative officer lead by district magistrate .He performs various managerial level tasks under the supervision of DM.There are six ADM's in Lucknow District.ADM E , ADM East , ADM West ,ADM Land , ADM Finance and Revenue , ADM CITY.

  • ACM (Additional City Magistrate)

Additional City Magistrate comes under ADM.There are six ACM's in Lucknow District.ACM -1 , ACM -2 , ACM -3 , ACM-4 , ACM-5 , ACM-6

  • Chief Development Officer office
  • Tehsil
  • Sub Divisional Magistrate

The Sub Divisional Magistrate is a miniature District Officer in his subdivision. In fact, under many revenue legislations, he is invariably vested with powers of Collector, to be exercised within his jurisdiction.

  • Fire Department[9]
  • SSP Lucknow

Deepak Kumar is the present SSP of Lucknow(As of May, 2017)

Architecture[1]

Lucknow's buildings show different styles of architecture with the many iconic buildings built during British and Mughal era. More than half of these buildings lie in the old part of the city. The Uttar Pradesh Tourism Department organises a "Heritage Walk" for tourists covering the popular monuments.  Among the extant architecture there are religious buildings such as Imambaras, mosques, and other Islamic shrines as well as secular structures such as enclosed gardens, baradaris, and palace complexes. Few icnic architectures in the city are: Rumi Darwaza, AsafiImambara (Bara Imambara), ChhotaImambara, Jama Masjid, Clock Tower, Hussainabad Picture Gallery, Shahnajaf Imambara, Residency, Kaiserbagh Palace Complex, Tombs of Saadat Ali Khan & Khurshid Zadi, Shaheed Smarak (Martyrs' Memorial) Dilkusha, Lord Hanuman Temples of Aliganj, Charbagh Railway Station, Vidhan Bhawan, Gurudwara Yahiyaganj, SikandarBagh, National Botanical Research Institute, La Martiniere Churches, Jain & Buddha Temples, Indira Gandhi Planetarium, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Park, Chhatar Manzil, Kukrail Reserve Forest, Nawab Wazid Ali Shah Prani Udyan(Zoo), State Museum , Lok Kala Sangrahalaya, Motilal Nehru Children Museum, Gandhi Museum, Regional Science, City Dargah-e-Sabri, Kalagaon (Arts Village), Anora Temples and forts, Dewa Sharif.

Bara Imambara in Hussainabad is a colossal edifice built in 1784 by the then Nawab of Lucknow, Asaf-ud-Daula. It was originally built to provide assistance to people affected by the deadly famine, which struck the whole of Uttar Pradesh in the same year. It is the largest hall in Asia without any external support from wood, iron or stone beams. The monument required approximately 22,000 labourers during construction.

The 60 feet (18 m) tall Rumi Darwaza, built by Nawab Asaf-ud-daula (r. 1775–1797) in 1784, served as the entrance to the city of Lucknow. It is also known as the Turkish Gateway, as it was erroneously thought to be identical to the gateway at Constantinople. The edifice provides the west entrance to the Great Imambara and is embellished with lavish decorations.

Styles of architectures from various cultures can be seen in the historical places of Lucknow. The University of Lucknow shows a huge inspiration from the European style while Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture is prominently present in the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha building and Charbagh Railway station. DilkushaKothi is the remains of a palace constructed by the British resident Major Gore Ouseley around 1800 and showcases an example of English Baroque architecture. It served as a hunting lodge for the Nawab of Awadhs and as a summer resort.

The Chattar Manzil, which served as the palace for the rulers of Awadh and their wives is topped by an umbrella-like dome and so named on account of Chattar being the Hindi word for "umbrella". Opposite Chattar Manzil stands the 'Lal Baradari' built by Nawab Saadat Ali Khan I between 1789 and 1814. It functioned as a throne room at coronations for the royal courts. The building is now used as a museum and contains delicately executed portraits of men who played major roles in the administration of the kingdom of Oudh.

Another example of mixed architectural styles is La Martiniere College, which shows a fusion of Indian and European ideas. It was built by Major-General Claude Martin who was born in Lyon and died in Lucknow on 13 September 1800. Originally named "Constantia", the ceilings of the building are domed with no wooden beams used for construction. Glimpses of Gothic architecture can also be seen in the college building.

Lucknow's Asafi Imambara exhibits vaulted halls as its architectural speciality. The Bara Imambara, Chhota Imambara and Rumi Darwaza stand in testament to the city's Nawabi mixture of Mughlai and Turkish style of architecture while La Martiniere college bears witness to the Indo-European style. Even the new buildings are fashioned using characteristic domes and pillars, and at night these illuminated monuments become the city's main attractions.

Around Hazratganj, the city's main market, there is a fusion of old and modern architecture. It has a multi-level parking lot in place of an old and dilapidated police station making way for extending the corridors into well-aligned pebbled pathways, adorned with piazzas, green areas and wrought-iron Tall, beautifully crafted cast-iron lamp-posts, reminiscent of the Victorian era, flank both sides of the street

Religions in Lucknow

Hinduism                                           71.71%

Islam                                                  26.36%

Sikhism                                                0.76%

Christianity                                          0.58% 

Others                                                  0.59%

Languages

Languages spoken here include Awadhi, a vernacular in the Hindi continuum spoken by over 38 million people, mainly in the Awadh region. Urdu and Hindi are also the two mainstream languages of the district.

Topography[3]

Lucknow controls the fertile lands between the River Ganges and the Yamuna River known as Doab. Situated in the heart of the great Gangetic plain, Lucknow city is surrounded by its rural towns and villages like the orchard town of Malihabad, historic Kakori, Mohanlalganj, Gosainganj, Chinhat, Itaunja. Out of total area of 251596 hectares, forest cover is 13082 hectares, non agriculture land is 101913 and cultivable barren land is 136601. 

Weather

Lucknow has hot summers from April to June and a warm humid subtropical climate with cool, dry winters from December to February and dry. The rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September, when Lucknow gets an average rainfall of 896.2 millimeters (35.28 in). In summers the maximum  temperature can range upto 450Cand in winters it can drop down to 00C.

Quality of Life

Lucknow was ranked "India's second happiest city"in a survey conducted by IMRB International and LG Corporation, after only Chandigarh. It fared better than other metropolitan cities in India including New Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai. Lucknow was found to be better than other cities in areas such as food, transit and overall citizen satisfaction.

Rivers and Tributaries[3]

Mythological River Gomti is pride of Lucknow and flows through the heart of the city. Some tributaries of River Gomti are Kukrail, Loni, Beta, etc. Another river Sai, flows through the South of the city and enters Raibareily in the East. The Gomti River, the chief geographical feature, meanders through the city, dividing it into the Trans-Gomti and Cis-Gomti regions.  

Forest Cover[3]

Lucknow’s forest cover is 4.66% and is very low as compared to that of the state that is barely 7%. Forest cover is 13082 hectares. The Forest area is dismal in this district.  Shisham, Dhak, Mahua, Babul, Neem, Peepal, Ashok, Khajur, Mango and Gular trees are grown here. Different varieties of mangoes specially Dasheri are grown in Lucknow and adjacent to Malihabad district and exported to other countries too. The main crops are wheat, paddy, sugarcane, mustard, potatoes, and vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, brinjals are grown here. Similarly sunflowers, roses, and marigold are cultivated on quite a large area of the land. Common livestock are cows, buffaloes, goat, pigs and dogs/bitches.

Industries and Enterprises[3]

The district has 8836 registered industrial units. Registered medium & large units are 13. Estimated avg. no. of daily worker employed in small scale industries are 45977. Employment in large and medium industries is 7600. Mainly there are 4 industrial areas namely:

1.       Rural India Estate, Talkatora

2.       UPSIDC Ind area, Chinhat

3.       Sarojini nagar

4.       Amausi

Existing micro and small enterprises and artisian units are 8836 in the district comprising of Agro based(235), soda water(08), cotton textile(04), woolen, silk and artificial thread based clothes (01), jute and jute based(03), readymade garments and embroidery(3808), wood and wooden based furniture(27), paper and paper products(296), leather based(35), chemical and chemical based(102), rubber plastic and petro based(188), mineral based(159), metal based(steel fab.)(41), engineering units (67), electrical machinery and transport equipment (126), repairing and servicing (2892) and others (844).

List of Large scale industries and Public sector undertakings units in Lucknow & Near By Area[3]

1. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Faizabad Road, Lucknow.

2. Scooter India Ltd. (Govt. of India Undertaking), Sarojini Nagar Industrial

Estate, Lucknow.

3. Tata Motors Ltd., Deva Road, Chinhat, Lucknow.

List of medium scale enterprises in Lucknow and nearby area[3]

1.UP Asbestos Ltd., Mohanlalganj, Lucknow.

2. Varuna Spinning Mills (P) Ltd., Kanpur Road, Lucknow.

3. Eveready Industries (India) Ltd., Talkatora Road, Lucknow.

4. Shyam Vanaspati Ltd., Industrial Area, Amausi, Lucknow.

5. Organics India (P) Ltd., Kamta, Faizabad Road, Chinhat, Lucknow.

6. Omax Auto Ltd., Tata Vendor Park, Chinhat, Lucknow.

7. Amar Ujala Publication Ltd., B-5 Industrial Area, Amausi, Lucknow.

8. Samradhi Cement Ltd., Raibereilly Road, Lucknow

9. Tata Marcopolo Motor Ltd., Chinhat Industrial Area, Lucknow.

10. PTC Industries, Alambagh, Lucknow.

Major exportable item[3]

Automobile Vehicles/Parts,  Chikan Garments, Synthetic yarn, herbal products, engg goods etc.

Public Health[3]

As per 2011 census, there are 38 allopathic hospitals with 4787 beds in total. Number of primary health centres, dispensaries, sub health centres are 26, 17, and 328 respectively.  In addition to this there are 39 ayurvedic hospitals, 06 unani hospitals and 09 community health centres.

Education and research[1][8]

Lucknow is home to a number of prominent educational and research organisations including Indian Institute of Management Lucknow (IIM-L), LUCKNOW BRANCH OF CIRC Of The Institute Of Chartered Accountants Of India, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Lucknow (IIIT-L), Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Institute of Engineering and Technology (IET Lko), Dr. Ram ManoharLohia National Law University (RMNLU), Institute of Hotel Management(IHM), Lucknow, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGI), Dr. Ram ManoharLohia Institute of Medical Sciences and King George's Medical University (KGMU). The prestigious National P. G. College, affiliated to the University of Lucknow is ranked as the second best college imparting formal education in the country by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council.

Educational institutions in the city include seven universities including University of Lucknow, a Central university(Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University), a technical university(Uttar Pradesh Technical University), a national law university(RMLNLU) and a large number of polytechnics, engineering institutes and industrial training institutes. Other research organisations in the state include the Central Food Technological Research Institute, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute.Lucknow also has a sports college named Guru Gobind Singh Sports College.

Some of Uttar Pradesh's major schools are located in Lucknow including City Montessori School, La Martiniere Lucknow, Colvin Taluqdars' College, Centennial Higher secondary School, St. Francis' College, Loreto Convent Lucknow, St. Mary's Convent Inter College, Kendriya Vidyala, Lucknow Public School, Stella Maris Inter College, Seth M.R.Jaipuria School, Lucknow, Cathedral School, Modern School, Amity International School, St. Agnes, Army Public School, Mount Carmel College, Study Hall, Christ Church College, Rani LaxmiBai School, Central Academy, Delhi Public School.

Transport and Connectivity[1]

Lucknow is connected with every part of the country through railways, airways and roadways. Length of railway lines is 188 km in the district and in addition to it; there are 113 national highways, 101 state highways, 154 main district highways. City also has 285 post offices.

Railways

City’s prime railway station ‘Charbagh’ is an important junction with links to all major cities of the state and country such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chandigarh, Amritsar, Jammu, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Pune, Indore, Bhopal, Jhansi, Jabalpur, Jaipur and Siwan. The city has a total of fourteen railway stations with meter gauge services originating at Aishbagh and connecting to Lucknow city, Daliganj and Mohibullapur.

Airways

Lucknow’s Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport (15 km from Hazratganj) is directly connected by regular flights with Delhi, Patna, Kolkata, Mumbai, Varanasi, Hyderabad and Sharjah, Muscat, Jeddah, Dubai. It has different terminals for domestic and international flights for easy commuting. There is also a plan for runway expansion. It is the 10th-busiest airport in India, busiest in Uttar Pradesh, and second-busiest in North India.

Roadways

Lucknow is connected by road with all major cities of the country through many National Highways. Some of the major road distances are: Kanpur-79 km, Ayodhya-135 km, Allahabad-210 km, Dudhwa National Park-238. City has frequent bus connectivity to all the areas for easy commuting.

Metro

Construction plans for a mass rapid transit system, the Lucknow Metro and Monorail Service were finalised in December 2013 by Delhi Metro Rail (DMRC). Previous Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav gave approval to set up a metro rail system for the state capital. It is divided into two corridors with the North-South corridor connecting Munshipulia to CCS International Airport and the East-West corridor connecting Charbagh Railway Station to VasantKunj. This will be the most expensive public transport system in the state, but will provide a rapid means of mass transport to decongest traffic on city roads. Construction of the first phase will be complete by March'17.

Sports

Lucknow is the Headquarter for the Badminton Association of India. Located in Gomti Nagar, It was formed in 1934 and has been holding national-level tournaments in India since 1936. Junior level Badminton players receive their training in Lucknow after which they are sent to Bangalore.

For decades Lucknow hosted the prestigious Sheesh Mahal Cricket Tournament. Today cricket, association football, badminton, golf and hockey are among the most popular sports in the city. Syed Modi Grand Prix is an international Badminton competition held here.

With a good record in modern sports, the city has produced several national and world-class sporting personalities. Lucknow sports hostel has produced international-level cricketers such as Mohammad Kaif, Piyush Chawla, Anurag Singh, Suresh Raina, Gyanendra Pandey, Praveen Kumar and R. P. Singh. Other notable sports personalities include hockey Olympians K. D. Singh, JamanLal Sharma, Mohammed Shahid and Ghaus Mohammad, the tennis player who became the first Indian to reach the quarter finals at Wimbledon.

The Lucknow Race Course in Lucknow Cantonment is spread over 70.22 acres (28.42 ha); the course's 3.2 kilometres (2.0 mi) long race track is the longest in India.

The main sports hub is the K. D. Singh Babu Stadium, which also has a world-class swimming pool and indoor games complex. The other stadiums are Dhyan Chand Astroturf Stadium, Mohammed Shahid Synthetic Hockey stadium, Dr. Akhilesh Das Gupta Stadium at Northern India Engineering College, Babu Banarsi Das UP Badminton Academy, Charbagh, Mahanagar, Chowk and the Sports College near the Integral University. Recently concluded junior hockey world cup was organized in Lucknow in December 2016. India became the champion junior hockey world cup.

The Lucknow Golf Club, on the sprawling greens of La Martinière College, is a well-known golf course while an international-level cricket stadium and academy project in the city is under construction in Gomti Nagar and is expected to host its first international match in 2017.

Shopping Areas

The main shopping areas in the city are Hazratganj (Sunday closed), Aminabad (Thursday closed), Chowk (Thursday closed), Narhi (Monday closed), Kaiserbagh (Thursday closed), Alambagh (Thursday closed), Aliganj(Wednesday closed), Bhoothnath (Wednesday closed), Gomti Nagar (Wednesday closed).

Weekly flea markets are held in Nakkhas (Sunday), Sadar (Saturday), Nishatganj (Wednesday), Nixon and Aminabad (Thursday)

Prominent Shopping Malls are Wave, Fun Republic, Riverside Mall, Phoenix, Singapore, Awadh, Saharaganj, SRS City Mall and Vishal Mega Mart.

Lucknow is known for its sarees, Chikan embroidery, zari work, handicraft, leather purses and hand crafted shoes, soft toys, sweets and namkeen.

Food and Cuisine

The world known Lakhnavi food is famous for its various delicacies. Inspired by Persian food, Awadhi food has its own distinct Nawabi style cuisine. Few of many delicacies are Kebabs (seekh ,Shami, kakori ,Galavati),  Biryani , Zarda,  Sheermal , Chaat , Samosa, Khasta, Poori-Sabji, Kulche-Nahari, Lassi, Shahi Tukda, Kheer,Kulfi, Malai Makkhan , Paan .Few famous food joints are Tunday kababs, Rahim’s, mubeens, Dastarkhaan, Royal café, Prakash kulfi, rovers, Exer club, coffee house, etc.

Fair and Festivals[6]

In common with other metropolitan cities across India, Lucknow is multicultural and home to people who use different dialects and languages. Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The city's contemporary culture is the result of the amalgamation of the Hindu and Muslim rulers who ruled the place simultaneously.

Prominent festivals are Holi, Raksha bandhan, Dussehra, Diwali, Id-Ul-Zuha, Id-Ul-Fitar, Shab-e-Barat, and Christmas.

Few fairs and other festivals are Jamghat (kite-flying festival after Diwali), BadaMangalMela (at Aliganj Hanuman temple in May/June), Kartikmela (Daliganj, October-November), Ramleela(around diwali), Navratra mela and Lucknow Mahotsav (Winters).

Art, Dance and Music[1]

Lucknow is also the home city of the eminent ghazal singer Begum Akhtar. A pioneer of the style, "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is one of her best known musical renditions. Bhatkande Music Institute University at Lucknow is named after the musician Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, Bhartendu Academy of Dramatic Arts (BNA), also known as Bhartendu Natya Academy, is a theatre training institute situated at Gomti Nagar. It is a deemed university and an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Culture, Government of Uttar Pradesh. It was set up in 1975 by the Sangeet Natak Akademy (Government of Uttar Pradesh), and became an independent drama school in 1977. Apart from government institutes, there are many private theatre groups including IPTA, Theatre Arts Workshop (TAW), Darpan, Manchkriti and the largest youth theatre group, Josh.

References

1- http://lucknow.nic.in/

2-https://uppolice.gov.in/

3-http://dcmsme.gov.in/dips/DIP%20Lucknow.pdf

4-http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/0926_PART_B_DCHB_LUCKNOW.pdf

5-http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/DCHB_A/09/0926_PART_A_DCHB_LUCKNOW.pdf

6-http://www.uptourism.gov.in/pages/top/explore/lucknow

7-http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/lucknow/Lucknow-pips-Kanpur-emerges-as-most-populous-city-in-UP/articleshow/7879054.cms

8-http://www.career-info.in/india/colleges/list-of-colleges-in-lucknow.html

9-http://upfireservice.gov.in/

10-http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/lucknow/Happiest-city-survey-What-makes-Lucknow-Indias-second-happiest-city/articleshow/47657418.cms

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