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Kota, which was once included in the kingdom of Bundi is located on the banks of river Chambal in Rajasthan. Kota is the 25th largest district in the northern Indian state of Rajasthan, which is located 240 kilometers (149 mi) south of state capital, Jaipur. It has been identified as a counter-magnet city for the National Capital Region to attract migrants and develop as an alternative centre of growth to Delhi. It is 47th most populous city of India. Being situated in the desert region, Kota experiences a warm climate throughout the year barring the mild winter months.

It is a colourful town that offers trading opportunities for agricultural products such as wheat, millet, variety of pulses, oil seeds and coriander. It is well known for establishments that boast of textile weaving and dyeing. This place is much known for its exquisite saris, woven on silk and cotton with unique assortment of hues. Wedding apparel dealers from all over India visit this place to collect exclusive merchandise much of which has delicate designs with golden thread.

Apart from clothing, this stately city also has an array of other things to offer which include indigenous metal handicrafts and jewellery. Considered as a business centre for industries such as textile weaving, oilseed milling, dairying, distilling, metal handcrafts, chemicals, fertilizers and engineering equipments Kota is a city filled with life and energy. With some amazing palaces and gardens Kota has its name listed among the cities worth visiting in Rajasthan.

Kota District is a district which is located in western part on India, Rajasthan. kota district is the head of administrative headquarters. During the period around 12th century AD, Rao Deva, a Hada Chieftain conquered the territory and founded Bundi and Hadoti.

In the early 17th century AD, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, the ruler of Bundi -Rao Ratan Singh, gave the smaller principality of Kota to his son, Madho Singh. Since then Kota became a hallmark of the Rajput gallantry and culture.

In Pre Independence days social activist Guru Radha Kishan worked here along with other prominent freedom fighters and organised people against insane policies of the government. He left Kota after local administration came to know about the arrest warrant issued against him for his activities for freedom movement.

The district is bounded on the north by Bundi District, on the east by Baran District, on the south by Jhalawar District, and on the west by Chittorgarh District. It is renowned for its IIT JEE preparation as well as medical exams preparation. It is now the hub of educational institutions and is home to Asia's biggest manufacturer of fertilizer.

Further, Kota is surrounded by four power stations within its 50 km radius. First is Rajasthan atomic power plant which is an atomic power plant and is very near to Kota at a place called Rawatbhata and is situated at a place called Rawatbhata in the Chittorgarh District.

Second is Kota Thermal Power plant which generates power from coal and is situated at the bank of Chambal river and is within Kota city. Third is Anta Gas Power plant which generates power from gas and is situated at a place called Anta in the Baran District. and the fourth is Jawahar Sagar Power plant which is hydraulic power plant.


The history of Kota tells much about the ancient culture and inheritance of the city. Being an important landmark of the state of Rajasthan in India, Kota has a very enticing past. The city of Kota earlier known as Kotah is situated on the eastern bank of the river Chambal.

It is located at a central point of the south-eastern region of Rajasthan in India. Popularly this area is known as Hadaoli or the land of the Hadas. The Hadas are an off shoot of the well known Chauhan clan belonging to the Agnikula or the fire dynasty Rajputs.

They initially settled down in the rocky regions of Mewar close to Bijolianat Bambaoda during the 12th century A.D but soon spread their control over Bundi in 1241 and the region of Kota thereafter.

Various Phases of History about Kota:

The detailed history of Kota states that the area was ruled by a Chieftain named Rao Deva of the Hada community. Initially Kota formed a part of the Jagir of the Hada state of Bundi. Later it got recognition as a separate state in seventeenth century. A ruler of Bundi carved out Kota as a present for one of his favourite young princes, Rao Madho Singh, for having proven his worth as courageous and a successful general at the tender age of fourteen. In following years, the area of Kota came under the rule of the leader of the Bhil community.

Till the initial years of 17th century AD, the region around Kota was ruled by the brave ruler Rao Ratan Singh. In 1631 however Kota was passed on to the hands of Rao Madho Singh, the son of Rao Ratan Singh by the erstwhile Mughal Emperor, Shahjahan. This was the juncture when Kota was transformed into an independent state in Rajasthan of that time. Later, one of the rulers down the line, Maharao Bhim Singh made significant changes in the historic enhancement of Kota by creating Mansabs of five thousand in the region.

Attacks by Various Rulers:

The rulers there after fought on behalf of the Mughal emperors. In the war fought by Emperor Shah Jahan, against the rebellious prince Aurangzeb, Rao Madho Singh's five sons lost their lives in the battlefield.

The one, who barely escaped, survived with almost fifty wounds wedged on him. Kota has a very complicated history with a lot of twists and turns over the ages. It has faced dangers of attacks over the centuries by different Mughal emperors as well as the rulers of Mewar and Jaipur.

 Not only that even the Maratha warlords and at times their own neighbour Bundi threatened the existence of Kota. Rulers of Kota over years of experience developed a deep sense of diplomacy.

The Rule of Zalim Singh:

During later years Kota saw a great leader in Zalim Singh. He was a diplomat and a statesman and who has often been called the 'Machiavelli of Rajwarra' as well as 'Talleyrand of North India'. Beginning his career as a general with the army of Kota, he became a great name in the kingdom as the then king expired leaving behind an infant son to be placed the throne.

Zalim Singh then started his journey by influencing the kingdom’s aggressive neighbourhood enemies by fighting and playing them against each other. He was the one to have entirely reorganized the kingdom, giving it a taste of modern administration. He also adopted the contemporary European war tactics and weapons for its army and also created a systematic revenue system which set a tax for everyone.

While bringing these changes he gathered many enemies with in the kingdom. There were several occasions when people attempted to kill him. In one such instance, he was set up by one of the queens who staged an attacked through a group of armed ladies while in purdah palace.

Separate Kingdoms in Kota:

In the year 1817, under the leadership of Zalim Singh, Kota was one of the very first Rajput states to have signed a treaty with the British Raj. In the treaty however Zalim Singh included that a separate kingdom would be carved out of the then existing Kota to be ruled by his descendants. As a result in 1838, the new kingdom of Jalawar came into existence. During the revolt of 1857 it is said that the troops in Kota joined the revolt under the secret help of the ruler.

In 1947, during independence Kota a town with its heritage buildings like the palaces and various public buildings, an already existing modern administration as well as good civic amenities. As over the centuries Kota has been under several influential dynasties of the bygone era the cultural heritage and the social set-up of the city mirrors the rich trail of those times.

Starting from the grand palaces, the incredible waterways, the outstanding architecture of the forts Kota has a store of far-fetched historic treasures to offer. Starting from 12th century AD till date, Kota has walked a long way of eventful ride which has been decorated with series of well noted historic events.

The population of Kota has grown gradually with an influx from Punjab and with the growth of innumerable industries locally. Not only does it have historical tales to offer but with passage of precious time, Kota has proved to be a prominent zone for business in the state.


The sprawling Kota city basking prettily along the banks of the Chambal River represents a splendid amalgam of architectural wonders manifested by the majestic palaces and crenulated forts as well as urban industrial estates. Apart from the bustling industries, Kota cuisine is another highlight of the Rajasthan city.

The city that is still alive with telltale signs of the former Rajput gallantry and valor boasts of a delectable platter of gastronomic delights for the true connoisseur of good food. While the palace kitchens prepared a elaborate delicacies, the traditional Kota food too was no less scrumptious.

Prepared in a land where water and fresh green vegetables are a luxury and consumed by a warrior race, the quintessential Kota food is devoid of all frills. Dire natural circumstances mandated that the food could be eaten several days after its preparation without being heated and at the same time retain its original flavour.

The dishes prepared usually have a deep red color and exude a rich aroma that is certain to make a gourmand's taste buds water with avarice and temptation. The food however, is not very spicy. Pure and unadulterated ghee is an essential ingredient of majority of the Kota cuisine. Lapsi, a sweetmeat prepared using broken wheat grains, delicately fried in a sweetened lump of ghee is also highly popular. The onion kachori is one of the famous breakfast delights of Kota, which is served with Saunth or Imli sauce. Kota’s people also loved poha and Imrati in their snacking.

However the talking point of Kota food is the simple yet delicious combination of the wholesome dal, bati and churma meaning a platter of lentils, wheat balls and cereals. Sweet dishes and desserts are also very popular in the region.


Kota has a semi arid climate with high temperatures throughout the year. Summers are long, hot and dry, starting in late March and lasting till the end of June.

The temperatures average above 40 °C in May and June and frequently exceed 45 °C with temperatures as high as 48.4 °C also been recorded. The monsoon season follows with comparatively lower temperatures, but higher humidity and frequent, torrential downpours. The monsoons subside in October and temperatures rise again.

The brief, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until the last week of February. Temperatures hover between 26.7 °C (max) to 12 °C (min). This can be considered the best time to visit Kota because of intense heat in the summer.

The average annual rainfall in the Kota district is 660.6 mm. Most of the rainfall can be attributed to the southwest monsoon which has its beginning around the last week of June and may last till mid-September.

Pre-monsoon showers begin towards the middle of June with post-monsoon rains occasionally occurring in October. The winter is largely dry, although some rainfall does occur as a result of the Western Disturbance passing over the region.


Kota is located along the banks of the Chambal River in the southern part of Rajasthan. It is the 3rd largest city of Rajasthan after Jaipur and Jodhpur. The cartographic coordinates are 25.18°N 75.83°E.

The city of Kota is situated at a centre of the southeastern region of Rajasthan a region very widely known as Hadoti, the land of the Hadas. Kota lies along the banks of the Chambal River on a high sloping tableland forming a part of the Malwa Plateau. Chambal is the principal perennial river in the district. Its tributaries are Kalisindh, Parvan and Parvati, which are all perennial in nature.

The general slope of city is towards the north. The comparatively rocky, barren and elevated land in southern part of city descends towards a plain agricultural land in the north. The Mokandarra hills run from southeast to northwest axis of the town. The historical places and temples are getting surrounded by signs of modern development.

It covers an area of 5217 km2. It has an average elevation of 271 metres (889 ft). The district is bound on the north and North West by Sawai Madhopur, Tonkand Bundi districts. The Chambal River separates these districts from Kota district, forming the natural boundary.

Kota has fertile land and greenery with irrigation facilities through canals. The two main canals; called as left main canal (towards Bundi) and right main canal (towards Baran) originate from the reservoir created by Kota Barrage. The tributaries of these canals make up a network in the city and surrounding areas of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh and supplement the irrigation of these areas.

Physiographically, the district is characterized by undulating topography with gentle plains. The land slopes from south to north and is drained by the river Chambal and its tributaries. In the south there is 145 km long Mumundra range of Vindhyan hills. The physiography is rugged and the tributaries of Chambal River drain through undulating plains which slope from SSE to NNW. The maximum height of the hills in the district is 517 m amsl at village Borabas, block Ladpura and minimum height is 207mamsl at Khatoli in block Itawa.


Kota is the third largest city in the North Indian state of Rajasthan after Jaipur and Jodhpur. This city lies in the eastern bank of the Chambal River and it is popular for its content of medieval history and modern age industrialization. Kota was once part of the Rajput Kindom of Bundi and later on in the 17th century it became a separate state.

Apart from the several places of tourist interests like monuments and forts, Kota is immensely famous for its parks and gardens. Kota, the city located in Rajasthan offers a numerous tourist spots for visitors to explore. Places like historical monuments, gardens, forts, museum to pubs and clubs all are in the city to entertain, explore and have a flashback to the history of India.

To have a comfortable stay Kota offers an array of hotels in the city located at the different corner. The luxurious hotels like Surya Royal, Heritage Umaid Bhawan Palace and many more hotels are in Kota which offers a royal stay in the city.

Standards rooms, deluxe room, and presidential suite with ballroom, courtyard, restaurant, lobby, and other rooms for various recreational activities are well constructed in the hotels to offers all basic to luxurious amenities in the town. The food includes all Indian and continental dishes with special cuisines form Rajasthani flavour. The room rents ranges from Rs. 300 to more than Rs. 6000 as per the hotel and facilities include.


The government and private schools in the city are affiliated with either Central Board of Secondary Education or Board of Secondary Education, Rajasthan and follow a 10+2 plan. The medium of instruction is either English or Hindi.

The city is specially recognized all over India as a center for preparation of various national level competitive examinations through which the students seek admissions in various engineering and medical colleges of the country. In the past decade the city has emerged as a popular coaching destination for competitive exams preparation and for profit educational services.

The education sector of Kota has become a major contributor to the city's economy. Kota is popularly referred to as "the coaching capital of India". Over 1.5 lakh students from all over the country flock every year towards the city for preparation of various exams such as IIT-JEE, NEET-UG and AIIMS etc. Many hostels and PGs are located in Kota near the vicinity of coaching centres for students. Students live here for 2–3 years and prepare for the exams. The annual turnover of the Kota coaching industry is about ₹1500 crore. In a recent raid by Income Tax at a coaching institute, "Allen Career Institute", an amount of ₹100 crore was disclosed hidden in institute’s group accounts.

Kota's emergence coaching hub began in 1985 when Vinod Kumar Bansal, an engineer working for J. K. Synthetics Ltd, set up Bansal Classes that eventually became Bansal Classes Private Limited. Some of his instructors started their own institutes making Kota a major educational center.


Kota is well connected to all the major cities of India. Kota Junction is one of the divisions in West Central Railway. It is an important station on the Delhi-Mumbai main line. There are four railway stations within Kota and in its vicinity. Another suburban station of South Kota city is Dakaniya Talav Railway station which has a stoppage of Avadh Express, Dehradun Express and Ranthambore Express.

The city is a halt for over 150 trains, including Mumbai Rajdhani Express, August Kranti Rajdhani Express, Mumbai New Delhi Duronto Express, Indore–Jaipur Express, Udaipur SuperFast (Delhi - Udaipur City Express), Dayodaya Express , Jodhpur - Indore Intercity, Hazrat Nizamuddin - Indore Express, Garbha Express, Marusagar Express (Ajmer - Ernakulam Express / Ernakulam Express), Jaipur - Mysore Express, Jaipur - Chennai Express, Jaipur - Coimbatore Express, Jodhpur - Puri Express, Jodhpur - Bhopal Express.

The Delhi Mumbai railway line passes through the Kota junction. The district has 148.83 km of railway line in the Kota Ruthia section, 98.72 km on Nagda Mathura (Mumbai-Delhi) section and 24.26 km on Kota Chittorgarh section.

A broad-gauge railway facility between Kota and Jodhpur via Jaipur exists.

Kota is also an originating point for many trains like Kota - Damoh Passenger (Kota - Katni Passenger) connecting Kota to Damoh in Madhya Pradesh. The Kota - Indore Intercity Express connects to another major city of Madhya Pradesh, Indore Junction.

There is also aJan Shatabdi Express train, from Kota to national capital Delhi. The other trains include, Kota - Vadodara Passenger, Kota - Sriganganagar Express, Kota - Ajmer, Kota - Jabalpur & Kota - Bina Passenger. Patna Kota Express connects Kota and Patna cities via Agra, Kanpur, Lucknow and Varanasi.


According to 2011 Census of India, Kota City had a population of 1,951,014 of which male and female are 1,021,161 and 929,853 respectively. The urban agglomeration of Kota consists of city only. The sex ratio was 895 and 12.14% were less than six years of age. The effective literacy rate was 77%, with male literacy at 86% and female literacy at 66%.

Harauti, a dialect of Rajasthani is widely spoken in Kota with Hindi, Marwari and English being the other languages spoken.

According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the majority religion in the city practised by about 80.5% of the population. Muslims form large minorities (15.9%) followed by Jains (2.2%), Sikhs (0.9%) and Christians (0.4%).


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