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PUNE (MAHARASTRA)

 

 

·         Pune is the capital of Pune(पुणे) District in the state of Maharashtra, India. It is the second largest city in the state after Mumbai. Pune covers 281 square miles of area. The geographical area of Pune district comprises of 5.09% of the area of Maharashtra State.   The city boasts some of the most renowned and best performing educational institutions in the eastern part of India. An estimated 50% of the total population of international students in India study in Pune. Pune district is known as the centre of educational and cultural activities, home of politicians and social workers and a source of inspiration for progress and development in all spheres of life. The district has major Defence and Research establishment. The Agriculture occupies major share in the economic activities in the district, followed by industries and service sectors. The IT industry is developing very fast in and around Pune city. A special Info-Tech Park is established for development of IT industry. [1]

·         Pune district is located between 17 degrees 54' and 10 degrees 24' North latitude and 73 degrees19' and 75 degrees 10' East longitude. The district has geographical area of 15.642sq.km. Pune district is bound by Ahmadnagar district on north-east,Solapur district on the south-east, Satara district on south, Raigad district on the west and Thane district on the northe-west.[2]

 

History[3]

Rulers of different dynasties have ruled Pune. Evidence found as copper plates of 758 AD and of 768 AD reveal that the Rashtrakootas ruled this region at that time. The Pune Gazetteer explains the term Pune as Punya - a holy place. Pune was ruled by the Yadava dynasty after the Rashtrakootas. Mughal rulers then ruled the city till the middle of the seventeenth century. Pune became popular with the rise of Maratha ruler Shivaji. He spent his early childhood in Pune at Lal Mahal, a palace built by his father Shahaji. Aurangazeb's uncle, Shahistekhan was defeated at Lal Mahal by Shivaji. Aurangazeb named Pune as Muhiyabad after the death of Shivaji in 1680. Pune again gained importance during the period of the second PeshwaThorala (senior) Bajirao who ruled from 1720 to 1740. The palace of the Peshwas - Shaniwarwada was built during his time. Different Peshwas constructed various monuments. NanasahebPeshwa succeeded ThoralaBajiraoPeshwa and ruled the Maratha kingdom from 1740 to 1761.NanasahebPeshwa emphasized in urbanizing the Pune city and encouraged setting up of peths or wards in Pune. NanasahebPeshwa constructed Parvati Temple complex, which is known to be the pride of the Pune city. British defeated the Marathas in 1818 and established the administration in this region.

 

Demography[4]

Pune district of Maharashtra has total population of 9,429,408 as per the Census 2011. Out of which 4,924,105 are males while 4,505,303 are females. In 2011 there were total 2,151,503 families residing in Pune district. The Average Sex Ratio of Pune district is 915.

As per Census 2011 out of total population, 61% people lives in Urban areas while 39% lives in the Rural areas. The average literacy rate in urban areas is 89.4% while that in the rural areas is 81%. Also the Sex Ratio of Urban areas in Pune district is 904 while that of Rural areas is 932. The population density of Pune district is 603 people per square kilometer.

The population of Children of age 0-6 years in Pune district is 1104959 which is 12% of the total population. There are 586665 male children and 518294 female children between the age 0-6 years. Thus as per the Census 2011 the Child Sex Ratio of Pune is 883which is less than Average Sex Ratio (915) of Pune district.

The total literacy rate of Pune district is 86.15%. The male literacy rate is 80.02% and the female literacy rate is 71.73% in Pune district.

Pune witnesses culmination of several religions with Hindus in majority. Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and Buddhist are other components of population in Pune.

 

Administration [1]

Pune district has 14 talukas viz. Pune, Haveli, khed, Ambegon, Junnar, Shirur, Daund, Indapur, Baramati, Purandhar, Bhor, Velhe, Mulshi and maval. At the district level, collector is the Administratie Chief and at tehsil level, Tehsildars are looking after the administration as per Collector’s instructions. For rural developmenmt, Chief Executive Officer of ZillaParishad and at block level, Block Development Officers are incharge of the administration. Municipal Councils are responsible for urban development of all the tehsils. There are 14 Tehsils, 13 Panchayat Samities, 11 Nagar Parishads and 2 Municipal Corporations.

Saurabh Rao is the PresentAdministratie Chiefof Pune district.

 

Architecture

Pune has seen some impressive architectural marvels appear in recent years. Combined with the already existing historical buildings, Pune boasts of some of the coolest buildings in India.

·         Aga Khan Palace- Built in 1892, the Aga Khan Palace in Pune is an architectural beauty like no other. It is one of the most popular and significant landmarks in India. Originally, built by the Sultan as an act of charity for the poor and needy victims hit by a devastating famine, the building is still a major draw in Pune because of its majestic architecture. The building stands in an area of 19 acres, and its picturesque beauty is a sight to behold. The white marble memorial, which served as a prison for several Indian freedom fighters (including Mahatma Gandhi) was designed by celebrated architect Charles Correa, and is instantly recognized from afar. [5]

·         Shaniwarwada- Shaniwarwada was the palace of the Peshwas since the 18th century C.E. The construction started on a Saturday, hence the name Shaniwarwada was given to the palace. Started by Bajirao I on 10th January 1730 C.E. the monument was completed in 1732. Spread over 625 acres, it was primarily a residence for the Peshwa (Prime Minister of the King). It is a heavily fortified building complex with nine bastions and five gateways. The 21ft tall main entrance of the complex faces North i.e. towards Delhi and hence is named as the Delhi Darvaja (Gate). Many additions were made to the original plan of the palace since its construction. In the final phase the palace was a seven storied building with four large and many smaller courtyards (chauk). The palace consisted of exquisite fountains and numerous gardens. But the most noteworthy is the sixteen petal lotus shaped fountain called the HazaariKaaranja (fountain of a thousand jets). The complex was taken over by the British when they defeated the Peshwas in the Battle of Khadaki in 1818. In 1828 most of the buildings were destroyed in a devastating fire. What remains today are only the plinth and the surrounding walls telling the visitor the story of the glory that Shaniwarwada experienced once upon a time. [6]

·         MahadajiShindeChhatri- Famous as the MahadajiShindeChhatri, this memorial structure of MahadajiShnde is an imposing monument constructed on the left bank of the Bhairoba stream in Wanavadi, an erstwhile village but now a suburb of Pune. This is a strong fortified complex with a huge fifteen ft. tall fortification wall surrounding the main complex. The main complex consists of three shrines viz. the Shiva and Maruti temple and the chhatri of MahadajiShinde. MahadajiShinde was the Commander – in – Chief of the Maratha army under the Peshwas from 1760 to 1780 C.E. In 1794 C.E. MahadajiShinde himself constructed a shrine to Lord Shiva and later on when he died the last rites were performed in the same complex. In 1965, Shrimant Maharaja MadhavraoScindia of Gwalior (who is a descendent of MahadajiShinde) founded the chhatri and installed the image in 1971. The temple is constructed on a high foundation, in black stone. The architecture of the building is noteworthy for the blend of Rajasthani and British styles of architecture. There are statues of saints placed on the top of the roof. The decoration of the pillared hall, the beautiful coloured window panes and the decoration of the ceiling are fine and worth observing. There is a row of photo frames of the members of the royal Scindia (Shinde) family. [6]

·         Infosys building- Although not a historic building in any way, the unique dome shape of the hi-tech Infosys building in Hinjewadi has made it quite famous all over the country. From the outside, the structure looks like a descending UFO. Designed by architect Hafeez Contractor, the building is an example of futuristic architecture, which is both environmentally friendly and sustainable. Although the design of the building has been called ‘weird’ by many, it has certainly managed to get a lot of attention with its unique shape and stunning glass façade. [5]

 

Religions in Pune [4]

Hinduism                                           85.8%

Islam                                                  7.14%

Buddhism                                          3.61%

Christianity                                        1.42% 

Others                                                 2.03%

 

Languages

The official language and the most widely spoken language in Pune is Marathi. English and Hindi are spoken and understood by most of the people.

 

Topography [1]

Pune district lies in the Bhima and Nira basins. It has a shape of triangle with its base in Sahyadri mountains on the West and its apex in the extreme South-East corner near Nira River. Taking into consideration the height from sea level, rainfall, soil pattern etc. it is divided into three zones viz. Western Zone, Central Zone and Eastern Zone. The Sahayadri ranges are spread from North to South in the district.

 

Weather [2]

The monsoon arrives in the month of June, with the maximum intensity of rainfall during the month of July and August. April and May are the hottest months in the district. Maximum temperature during these months often rises above 38°C. The western region of Pune district i.e. talukas Junnar, Ambegaon, Khed, Maval, Mulshi and Velha are cool whereas the eastern part i.e. talukas Shirur, Daund, Baramati and Indapur are hot and dry. December and January are the coolest months, when average temperature falls as low as 11°C.

 

Quality of Life

Pune ranks a high second in quality of life but a dismal last in urban planning and design in a survey of 11 Indian cities conducted by Janaagraha, a Bangalore-based NGO, on the state of city systems.

 

Rivers and Tributaries

There are five rivers in Pune city namelyMula, Mutha, Pawana, Ram and Dev river. River Mula and Mutha are very important rivers passing through centre of Pune city.

 

Forest cover[1]

The total area under the forest is 171000 hectares, which is about 10.95% of the total geographical area of the district. The total forest area of Maharashtra State is about 5370 thousand hectares, which is 17.42% of its total geographical area. Pune district accounts for about 3.18% of the Total State forest area. Hence efforts should be made to bring more land under forest area. The forest produce includes timber, fuel wood, grass, Hirda, Bamboo, Shikekai, gum etc.

Figs are a delicious fruit like treat and popularly known as Anjeer in India, cultivation of common fig is mostly confined to Western Parts of Maharashtra of which 900 hectares are in Pune district.Fruits like guava, sugarcane are cultivated from Pune.

Common livestock are cows, buffaloes, goat, pigs and dogs/bitches.

 

Industries and Enterprises [1]

In Pune district registered industrial units are classified in four categories namely Micro, Small, Medium and Large scale industries.

Sr. No.

Category

Number of enterprises

Employment generation

1

Micro

21763

87269

2

Small

5818

48639

3

Medium

102

12190

4

Large

639

91666

Total

 

28322

239764

 

There are mainly ten industrial areas namely:

1.       Pimpri     2. Chakan     3. Talegaon     4. Ranjangaon      5. Jejuri

6. Baramati 7. Bhicwan   8. Pandhari9. Kurkumbh10. Indapur

Existing micro, small enterprises and artisan units comprises of Agro based, soda water (1409), Rubber, plastic & petro based (1398), Metal based (1867), Engineering units(1320), Mineral based (802), Chemical/chemical based (835), Leather based (454), Ready-made garment & embroidery (487), Electrical machinery & transport equipment (393), Paper &paper products (332), Cotton textile, woolen, silk & artificial tread based clothes (62) and Others (542).

Most Potential Industries in Pune

1.      Dairy based products

2.      Automobile Components

3.      Bio-coal Brequettes from agro-waste

4.      General Purpose Machine Shop

5.      Herbal &Ayurvedic products

6.      Agro-processing Export oriented units

7.      Cold storage unit

8.      Starch from Jowar

9.      Solar Cell

10.  Computer Software / BPO / IT Related products

 

Major Exportable item [1]

Automobile spare parts, Machine tools, Food products, Diesel Engines, Medicine and Electronics products.

 

Public health [1]

There are 48 allopathic hospitals with 3500 beds. It also has 3 Ayurvedic hospitals. There are 96 primary health centres, 85 dispensaries, 539 sub health centres. Pune has 6 private hospitals too.

 

Education and Research [7] [8]

1.   Science and technology: University of Pune, College Of Engineering Pune,National Chemical Laboratory, Automotive Research Association of India, Bhaskaracharya Institute of Mathematics, Inter University Center For Astronomy & Astro-Physics, National Center For Radio Astro-Physics, Central Institute Of Road Transport, Tata Research Development & Design Center, Computational Research Laboratories, Center For Development In Advanced Computing, Systems Research Institute, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Indian Meteorological Department, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Central Water & Power Research, Agharkar Research Institute, BAIF Development Research Foundation, Vasantdada Sugar Institute, Agriculture College, National Center For Research In Grapes, Institute of Bio-Informatics & Bio-Technology, BJ Medical College, National Institute of Virology, National AIDS Research Center, National Center for Cell Science, National Center For Research In Onion & Garlic.

2.   Arts, Humanities, Management & Law:  University of Pune, Deccan College, Film & Television Institute of India, ILS Law College, Gokhale Institute, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Bharat ItihaasSanshodhak Mandal, Max Mueller Bhuvan, National Institute of Banking Management, YashwantraoChavan Academy of Development Administration, National Insurance Academy.

3.   Defense related:DRDO, Armed Forces Medical College, National Defense Academy, Defense Institute of Armament Technology, College of Military Engineering.

4.   Schools in Pune:Symbiosis International School, VIBGYOR High School, B K Birla Centre for Education, Global Indian International School, Mahindra United World College, Mercedes-Benz International School, Indus International School, RiverDale International School, VishwashantiGurukul, Loyola High School, St Mary’s School, The Bishop’s School, St Helena’s School, Delhi Public School, Army Public School.

 

Transport and Connectivity [2]

The district is well connected with the state capital and surrounding district headquarters through road and rail linkages. The road network consists of Express Highways, National Highways, State Highways and Major District Roads. The rail network consists of both broad-gauge (Electrified and Non Electrified) double track as well as single track lines. The district headquarter has connectivity through airways for transport and trade to major airports within the country and to select international destinations. In spite of availability of perennial river stretches, there is no significant utilization of waterways in the district.

Roadways

The district has total length of 13,642 km of roads (2001) of which 5394 km roads are Bituminous surface, 3554 km roads of water bound macadam surface and 4694 km of other surface roads. The roads are classified according to their importance. Of the total road length in the district, 331km road length is covered by National Highways and 1368 km by State Highways. The major and other district roads have a total length of 5388 km, which passes through all the talukas. Almost all the villages are well connected by water bound macadam road. The total length of village roads is 6555 km.

National Highways

National Highway No. 4 (Mumbai-Banglore) - The NH-4 passes through following places in the district: Khandala, Lonavala, talegaon, Chinchwad, Pune and Khed-Shivapur. It enters from Raigad district and exits in Satara district. Total length of NH4 in the district is 120 km. National Highway No. 9 (Pune-Solapur-Hyderabad) - The NH-9 starts at Pune district and passes through Loni, Bhigawan and Indapur. It exits in Solapur district. Total length of NH9 in the district is 152km. National Highway No. 50 (Pune-Nashik) - The NH-50 originates at Pune and passes through Chakan, Rajgurunagar, Manchar, Narayangaon, Aalephata and it exits in Nashik district. The total length of NH50 in the district is 95km.

Railways

The broad gauge single and double track rail length within the district have a total length of 311 km. Of these, single line is 162 km and the double line is 149 km. Pune and Daund are the two railway junctions in the district. Following are the three main railway routes passing through the district: Mumbai-Pune-Solapur rail route Pune-Miraj rail route Daund-Baramti rail route.

Airways

Pune is well connected through domestic airlines with the entire country. The airport located at Lohgaon has recently acquired status of an international airport and is being used to carry domestic as well as international traffic. Also, it is proposed to develop an international air-cargo hub near Khed tehsil of district.

Metro

Pune Pimpri-Chinchwad Metro is a metro rail based rapid transit system under construction to serve the city of Pune. It is estimated to cost ₹114.20 billion. On 7 December 2016, the Government of Maharashtra gave approval for the project, while the Ministry of Urban Development had already given approval for the project. On 7 December 2016, the Union Cabinet gave approval for the project and Prime MinisterNarendra Modi laid the foundation stone on 24 December 2016 on his visit to the city. The project is expected to be completed by December 2021.

 

Sports

Cricket, football, badminton, tennis, rugby, marathon and kabaddi are among the most popular sports in the city. 

Pandit Nehru Stadium; BankarKridaSankul; Sports Complex, Kharadi;RamchandraBanharKridaSankul; ArunKumarVaidyaStadium; SanasSports GroundSportsHostel &Galleryare some main sports complexes having cricket pitch, swimming pool, badminton hall, tennis pitch, indoor games facilities. [9]

Deccan gymkhana ground, Maharashtra cricket association stadium, Nehru stadium are some international cricket stadium in Pune.

Ajay Chavan, KedarJadhav, Pratik Desai, D.B. Deodhar, Ganesh Gaikwad, RohitMotwani, Snehal Pradhan are the cricketers from Pune. SumanDeodhar, Aditi Mutakar, Nikhil Kanetkar are badminton players. SandeshGadkari, Prakash Thorat are footballers.

 

Shopping Areas [3] [10]

Tulsibaug, Deccan gymkhana, Old market, Laxmi road, Mahatma Gandhi road, Fashion street, Phule market are some shopping places.

Seasons mall, Nitesh hub, Sgs mall, Phoenix market city, Xion mall are major shopping malls in Pune city.

Some of the best buys of the place includes Rice flakes Chiwda, Cornflakes Chiwda, Potato Chiwda, Chitales'sBakarwadi and Mango Barfi from Laxminarayan Best Chiwda. Also, Pune is a nice place to pick up some ethnic slippers, though KolhapuriChappals can be purchased from roadside vendors

Pune is known for jewellery, Maharashtrians traditional wares, pearl nose ring, necklace and the nine-yard sarees from tulsibaug market. Antique coins are casually sold in old market.  

 

Food and cuisine [2]

Pune, the seat of the Peshwas has retained its traditional cuisine. A special Pune meal would consist of PuranPoli (a sweet paratha with pulses/dal) Amti (masala dal), PithlaBhakri (a masala chickpea gravy with a stiff 'roti'), Varan Bhat (dal and rice), Matki Ki Usal (masala sprouts), Thali pith (a spicy chickpea based pancake) and Alu chi Vadi (steamed and fried, sweet n' spicy leaves). Bakar Vadi (spicy crusty savoury) and Missal Pav (spicy mixture of onions, chilly and small savoury items, with bread) are some of the most delectable snacks. For those with a sweet tooth, Pune offers its Shrikhand (a burnt milk delicacy) and the seasonal AmrasPuri (thick mango juice with fried 'puris') complete the traditional Maharashtrian feast.

 

Festivals [2]

All the Indian festivals like Diwali, Janmashtami, Navaratri, Dashahara, Holi, Rakshabandhan, Christmas, Id are celebrated with the same excitement in Pune with no religion, language bars. But Pune is famous for its Ganesh festival.

 

Art, dance & music [2]

Pune is the birthplace of the poet-saint Tukaram (in Dehu) and Jnaneshvara (in Alandi), the author of the well-known commentary 'Jnaneshwari',on the "Bhagavad Gita". It is the home of great freedom fighters like Bal GangadharTilak, Agarkar and Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Jayant Narlikar, the famous contemporary scientist, is from Pune. Pune is the seat of North Indian Classical music. Annually, in the month of December, it hosts a three nightlong cultural program of vocal and instrumental classical music, called "Savai-Gandharva".

 

References

[1] http://dcmsme.gov.in/dips/IPS%20Pune%20New.pdf

[2] http://pune.nic.in/content/punecity/aboutpune.aspx

[3] https://www.maharashtratourism.net/cities/pune/history.html

[4] http://www.censusindia.co.in/district/pune-district-maharashtra-521

[5] https://theculturetrip.com/asia/india/articles/the-most-impressive-buildings-in-pune/

[6] http://puneheritage.in

[7] https://punetech.com/research-institutions-in-pune/

[8] http://www.educationworld.in/institution/pune/schools

[9] https://pmc.gov.in/en/sports-complex

[10] https://www.quora.com/What-is-a-list-of-the-best-shopping-malls-in-Pune

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 PUNE (MAHARASTRA)

 

 

·         Pune is the capital of Pune(पुणे) District in the state of Maharashtra, India. It is the second largest city in the state after Mumbai. Pune covers 281 square miles of area. The geographical area of Pune district comprises of 5.09% of the area of Maharashtra State.   The city boasts some of the most renowned and best performing educational institutions in the eastern part of India. An estimated 50% of the total population of international students in India study in Pune. Pune district is known as the centre of educational and cultural activities, home of politicians and social workers and a source of inspiration for progress and development in all spheres of life. The district has major Defence and Research establishment. The Agriculture occupies major share in the economic activities in the district, followed by industries and service sectors. The IT industry is developing very fast in and around Pune city. A special Info-Tech Park is established for development of IT industry. [1]

·         Pune district is located between 17 degrees 54' and 10 degrees 24' North latitude and 73 degrees19' and 75 degrees 10' East longitude. The district has geographical area of 15.642sq.km. Pune district is bound by Ahmadnagar district on north-east,Solapur district on the south-east, Satara district on south, Raigad district on the west and Thane district on the northe-west.[2]

 

History[3]

Rulers of different dynasties have ruled Pune. Evidence found as copper plates of 758 AD and of 768 AD reveal that the Rashtrakootas ruled this region at that time. The Pune Gazetteer explains the term Pune as Punya - a holy place. Pune was ruled by the Yadava dynasty after the Rashtrakootas. Mughal rulers then ruled the city till the middle of the seventeenth century. Pune became popular with the rise of Maratha ruler Shivaji. He spent his early childhood in Pune at Lal Mahal, a palace built by his father Shahaji. Aurangazeb's uncle, Shahistekhan was defeated at Lal Mahal by Shivaji. Aurangazeb named Pune as Muhiyabad after the death of Shivaji in 1680. Pune again gained importance during the period of the second PeshwaThorala (senior) Bajirao who ruled from 1720 to 1740. The palace of the Peshwas - Shaniwarwada was built during his time. Different Peshwas constructed various monuments. NanasahebPeshwa succeeded ThoralaBajiraoPeshwa and ruled the Maratha kingdom from 1740 to 1761.NanasahebPeshwa emphasized in urbanizing the Pune city and encouraged setting up of peths or wards in Pune. NanasahebPeshwa constructed Parvati Temple complex, which is known to be the pride of the Pune city. British defeated the Marathas in 1818 and established the administration in this region.

 

Demography[4]

Pune district of Maharashtra has total population of 9,429,408 as per the Census 2011. Out of which 4,924,105 are males while 4,505,303 are females. In 2011 there were total 2,151,503 families residing in Pune district. The Average Sex Ratio of Pune district is 915.

As per Census 2011 out of total population, 61% people lives in Urban areas while 39% lives in the Rural areas. The average literacy rate in urban areas is 89.4% while that in the rural areas is 81%. Also the Sex Ratio of Urban areas in Pune district is 904 while that of Rural areas is 932. The population density of Pune district is 603 people per square kilometer.

The population of Children of age 0-6 years in Pune district is 1104959 which is 12% of the total population. There are 586665 male children and 518294 female children between the age 0-6 years. Thus as per the Census 2011 the Child Sex Ratio of Pune is 883which is less than Average Sex Ratio (915) of Pune district.

The total literacy rate of Pune district is 86.15%. The male literacy rate is 80.02% and the female literacy rate is 71.73% in Pune district.

Pune witnesses culmination of several religions with Hindus in majority. Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and Buddhist are other components of population in Pune.

 

Administration [1]

Pune district has 14 talukas viz. Pune, Haveli, khed, Ambegon, Junnar, Shirur, Daund, Indapur, Baramati, Purandhar, Bhor, Velhe, Mulshi and maval. At the district level, collector is the Administratie Chief and at tehsil level, Tehsildars are looking after the administration as per Collector’s instructions. For rural developmenmt, Chief Executive Officer of ZillaParishad and at block level, Block Development Officers are incharge of the administration. Municipal Councils are responsible for urban development of all the tehsils. There are 14 Tehsils, 13 Panchayat Samities, 11 Nagar Parishads and 2 Municipal Corporations.

Saurabh Rao is the PresentAdministratie Chiefof Pune district.

 

Architecture

Pune has seen some impressive architectural marvels appear in recent years. Combined with the already existing historical buildings, Pune boasts of some of the coolest buildings in India.

·         Aga Khan Palace- Built in 1892, the Aga Khan Palace in Pune is an architectural beauty like no other. It is one of the most popular and significant landmarks in India. Originally, built by the Sultan as an act of charity for the poor and needy victims hit by a devastating famine, the building is still a major draw in Pune because of its majestic architecture. The building stands in an area of 19 acres, and its picturesque beauty is a sight to behold. The white marble memorial, which served as a prison for several Indian freedom fighters (including Mahatma Gandhi) was designed by celebrated architect Charles Correa, and is instantly recognized from afar. [5]

·         Shaniwarwada- Shaniwarwada was the palace of the Peshwas since the 18th century C.E. The construction started on a Saturday, hence the name Shaniwarwada was given to the palace. Started by Bajirao I on 10th January 1730 C.E. the monument was completed in 1732. Spread over 625 acres, it was primarily a residence for the Peshwa (Prime Minister of the King). It is a heavily fortified building complex with nine bastions and five gateways. The 21ft tall main entrance of the complex faces North i.e. towards Delhi and hence is named as the Delhi Darvaja (Gate). Many additions were made to the original plan of the palace since its construction. In the final phase the palace was a seven storied building with four large and many smaller courtyards (chauk). The palace consisted of exquisite fountains and numerous gardens. But the most noteworthy is the sixteen petal lotus shaped fountain called the HazaariKaaranja (fountain of a thousand jets). The complex was taken over by the British when they defeated the Peshwas in the Battle of Khadaki in 1818. In 1828 most of the buildings were destroyed in a devastating fire. What remains today are only the plinth and the surrounding walls telling the visitor the story of the glory that Shaniwarwada experienced once upon a time. [6]

·         MahadajiShindeChhatri- Famous as the MahadajiShindeChhatri, this memorial structure of MahadajiShnde is an imposing monument constructed on the left bank of the Bhairoba stream in Wanavadi, an erstwhile village but now a suburb of Pune. This is a strong fortified complex with a huge fifteen ft. tall fortification wall surrounding the main complex. The main complex consists of three shrines viz. the Shiva and Maruti temple and the chhatri of MahadajiShinde. MahadajiShinde was the Commander – in – Chief of the Maratha army under the Peshwas from 1760 to 1780 C.E. In 1794 C.E. MahadajiShinde himself constructed a shrine to Lord Shiva and later on when he died the last rites were performed in the same complex. In 1965, Shrimant Maharaja MadhavraoScindia of Gwalior (who is a descendent of MahadajiShinde) founded the chhatri and installed the image in 1971. The temple is constructed on a high foundation, in black stone. The architecture of the building is noteworthy for the blend of Rajasthani and British styles of architecture. There are statues of saints placed on the top of the roof. The decoration of the pillared hall, the beautiful coloured window panes and the decoration of the ceiling are fine and worth observing. There is a row of photo frames of the members of the royal Scindia (Shinde) family. [6]

·         Infosys building- Although not a historic building in any way, the unique dome shape of the hi-tech Infosys building in Hinjewadi has made it quite famous all over the country. From the outside, the structure looks like a descending UFO. Designed by architect Hafeez Contractor, the building is an example of futuristic architecture, which is both environmentally friendly and sustainable. Although the design of the building has been called ‘weird’ by many, it has certainly managed to get a lot of attention with its unique shape and stunning glass façade. [5]

 

Religions in Pune [4]

Hinduism                                           85.8%

Islam                                                  7.14%

Buddhism                                          3.61%

Christianity                                        1.42% 

Others                                                 2.03%

 

Languages

The official language and the most widely spoken language in Pune is Marathi. English and Hindi are spoken and understood by most of the people.

 

Topography [1]

Pune district lies in the Bhima and Nira basins. It has a shape of triangle with its base in Sahyadri mountains on the West and its apex in the extreme South-East corner near Nira River. Taking into consideration the height from sea level, rainfall, soil pattern etc. it is divided into three zones viz. Western Zone, Central Zone and Eastern Zone. The Sahayadri ranges are spread from North to South in the district.

 

Weather [2]

The monsoon arrives in the month of June, with the maximum intensity of rainfall during the month of July and August. April and May are the hottest months in the district. Maximum temperature during these months often rises above 38°C. The western region of Pune district i.e. talukas Junnar, Ambegaon, Khed, Maval, Mulshi and Velha are cool whereas the eastern part i.e. talukas Shirur, Daund, Baramati and Indapur are hot and dry. December and January are the coolest months, when average temperature falls as low as 11°C.

 

Quality of Life

Pune ranks a high second in quality of life but a dismal last in urban planning and design in a survey of 11 Indian cities conducted by Janaagraha, a Bangalore-based NGO, on the state of city systems.

 

Rivers and Tributaries

There are five rivers in Pune city namelyMula, Mutha, Pawana, Ram and Dev river. River Mula and Mutha are very important rivers passing through centre of Pune city.

 

Forest cover[1]

The total area under the forest is 171000 hectares, which is about 10.95% of the total geographical area of the district. The total forest area of Maharashtra State is about 5370 thousand hectares, which is 17.42% of its total geographical area. Pune district accounts for about 3.18% of the Total State forest area. Hence efforts should be made to bring more land under forest area. The forest produce includes timber, fuel wood, grass, Hirda, Bamboo, Shikekai, gum etc.

Figs are a delicious fruit like treat and popularly known as Anjeer in India, cultivation of common fig is mostly confined to Western Parts of Maharashtra of which 900 hectares are in Pune district.Fruits like guava, sugarcane are cultivated from Pune.

Common livestock are cows, buffaloes, goat, pigs and dogs/bitches.

 

Industries and Enterprises [1]

In Pune district registered industrial units are classified in four categories namely Micro, Small, Medium and Large scale industries.

Sr. No.

Category

Number of enterprises

Employment generation

1

Micro

21763

87269

2

Small

5818

48639

3

Medium

102

12190

4

Large

639

91666

Total

 

28322

239764

 

There are mainly ten industrial areas namely:

1.       Pimpri     2. Chakan     3. Talegaon     4. Ranjangaon      5. Jejuri

6. Baramati 7. Bhicwan   8. Pandhari9. Kurkumbh10. Indapur

Existing micro, small enterprises and artisan units comprises of Agro based, soda water (1409), Rubber, plastic & petro based (1398), Metal based (1867), Engineering units(1320), Mineral based (802), Chemical/chemical based (835), Leather based (454), Ready-made garment & embroidery (487), Electrical machinery & transport equipment (393), Paper &paper products (332), Cotton textile, woolen, silk & artificial tread based clothes (62) and Others (542).

Most Potential Industries in Pune

1.      Dairy based products

2.      Automobile Components

3.      Bio-coal Brequettes from agro-waste

4.      General Purpose Machine Shop

5.      Herbal &Ayurvedic products

6.      Agro-processing Export oriented units

7.      Cold storage unit

8.      Starch from Jowar

9.      Solar Cell

10.  Computer Software / BPO / IT Related products

 

Major Exportable item [1]

Automobile spare parts, Machine tools, Food products, Diesel Engines, Medicine and Electronics products.

 

Public health [1]

There are 48 allopathic hospitals with 3500 beds. It also has 3 Ayurvedic hospitals. There are 96 primary health centres, 85 dispensaries, 539 sub health centres. Pune has 6 private hospitals too.

 

Education and Research [7] [8]

1.   Science and technology: University of Pune, College Of Engineering Pune,National Chemical Laboratory, Automotive Research Association of India, Bhaskaracharya Institute of Mathematics, Inter University Center For Astronomy & Astro-Physics, National Center For Radio Astro-Physics, Central Institute Of Road Transport, Tata Research Development & Design Center, Computational Research Laboratories, Center For Development In Advanced Computing, Systems Research Institute, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Indian Meteorological Department, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Central Water & Power Research, Agharkar Research Institute, BAIF Development Research Foundation, Vasantdada Sugar Institute, Agriculture College, National Center For Research In Grapes, Institute of Bio-Informatics & Bio-Technology, BJ Medical College, National Institute of Virology, National AIDS Research Center, National Center for Cell Science, National Center For Research In Onion & Garlic.

2.   Arts, Humanities, Management & Law:  University of Pune, Deccan College, Film & Television Institute of India, ILS Law College, Gokhale Institute, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Bharat ItihaasSanshodhak Mandal, Max Mueller Bhuvan, National Institute of Banking Management, YashwantraoChavan Academy of Development Administration, National Insurance Academy.

3.   Defense related:DRDO, Armed Forces Medical College, National Defense Academy, Defense Institute of Armament Technology, College of Military Engineering.

4.   Schools in Pune:Symbiosis International School, VIBGYOR High School, B K Birla Centre for Education, Global Indian International School, Mahindra United World College, Mercedes-Benz International School, Indus International School, RiverDale International School, VishwashantiGurukul, Loyola High School, St Mary’s School, The Bishop’s School, St Helena’s School, Delhi Public School, Army Public School.

 

Transport and Connectivity [2]

The district is well connected with the state capital and surrounding district headquarters through road and rail linkages. The road network consists of Express Highways, National Highways, State Highways and Major District Roads. The rail network consists of both broad-gauge (Electrified and Non Electrified) double track as well as single track lines. The district headquarter has connectivity through airways for transport and trade to major airports within the country and to select international destinations. In spite of availability of perennial river stretches, there is no significant utilization of waterways in the district.

Roadways

The district has total length of 13,642 km of roads (2001) of which 5394 km roads are Bituminous surface, 3554 km roads of water bound macadam surface and 4694 km of other surface roads. The roads are classified according to their importance. Of the total road length in the district, 331km road length is covered by National Highways and 1368 km by State Highways. The major and other district roads have a total length of 5388 km, which passes through all the talukas. Almost all the villages are well connected by water bound macadam road. The total length of village roads is 6555 km.

National Highways

National Highway No. 4 (Mumbai-Banglore) - The NH-4 passes through following places in the district: Khandala, Lonavala, talegaon, Chinchwad, Pune and Khed-Shivapur. It enters from Raigad district and exits in Satara district. Total length of NH4 in the district is 120 km. National Highway No. 9 (Pune-Solapur-Hyderabad) - The NH-9 starts at Pune district and passes through Loni, Bhigawan and Indapur. It exits in Solapur district. Total length of NH9 in the district is 152km. National Highway No. 50 (Pune-Nashik) - The NH-50 originates at Pune and passes through Chakan, Rajgurunagar, Manchar, Narayangaon, Aalephata and it exits in Nashik district. The total length of NH50 in the district is 95km.

Railways

The broad gauge single and double track rail length within the district have a total length of 311 km. Of these, single line is 162 km and the double line is 149 km. Pune and Daund are the two railway junctions in the district. Following are the three main railway routes passing through the district: Mumbai-Pune-Solapur rail route Pune-Miraj rail route Daund-Baramti rail route.

Airways

Pune is well connected through domestic airlines with the entire country. The airport located at Lohgaon has recently acquired status of an international airport and is being used to carry domestic as well as international traffic. Also, it is proposed to develop an international air-cargo hub near Khed tehsil of district.

Metro

Pune Pimpri-Chinchwad Metro is a metro rail based rapid transit system under construction to serve the city of Pune. It is estimated to cost ₹114.20 billion. On 7 December 2016, the Government of Maharashtra gave approval for the project, while the Ministry of Urban Development had already given approval for the project. On 7 December 2016, the Union Cabinet gave approval for the project and Prime MinisterNarendra Modi laid the foundation stone on 24 December 2016 on his visit to the city. The project is expected to be completed by December 2021.

 

Sports

Cricket, football, badminton, tennis, rugby, marathon and kabaddi are among the most popular sports in the city. 

Pandit Nehru Stadium; BankarKridaSankul; Sports Complex, Kharadi;RamchandraBanharKridaSankul; ArunKumarVaidyaStadium; SanasSports GroundSportsHostel &Galleryare some main sports complexes having cricket pitch, swimming pool, badminton hall, tennis pitch, indoor games facilities. [9]

Deccan gymkhana ground, Maharashtra cricket association stadium, Nehru stadium are some international cricket stadium in Pune.

Ajay Chavan, KedarJadhav, Pratik Desai, D.B. Deodhar, Ganesh Gaikwad, RohitMotwani, Snehal Pradhan are the cricketers from Pune. SumanDeodhar, Aditi Mutakar, Nikhil Kanetkar are badminton players. SandeshGadkari, Prakash Thorat are footballers.

 

Shopping Areas [3] [10]

Tulsibaug, Deccan gymkhana, Old market, Laxmi road, Mahatma Gandhi road, Fashion street, Phule market are some shopping places.

Seasons mall, Nitesh hub, Sgs mall, Phoenix market city, Xion mall are major shopping malls in Pune city.

Some of the best buys of the place includes Rice flakes Chiwda, Cornflakes Chiwda, Potato Chiwda, Chitales'sBakarwadi and Mango Barfi from Laxminarayan Best Chiwda. Also, Pune is a nice place to pick up some ethnic slippers, though KolhapuriChappals can be purchased from roadside vendors

Pune is known for jewellery, Maharashtrians traditional wares, pearl nose ring, necklace and the nine-yard sarees from tulsibaug market. Antique coins are casually sold in old market.  

 

Food and cuisine [2]

Pune, the seat of the Peshwas has retained its traditional cuisine. A special Pune meal would consist of PuranPoli (a sweet paratha with pulses/dal) Amti (masala dal), PithlaBhakri (a masala chickpea gravy with a stiff 'roti'), Varan Bhat (dal and rice), Matki Ki Usal (masala sprouts), Thali pith (a spicy chickpea based pancake) and Alu chi Vadi (steamed and fried, sweet n' spicy leaves). Bakar Vadi (spicy crusty savoury) and Missal Pav (spicy mixture of onions, chilly and small savoury items, with bread) are some of the most delectable snacks. For those with a sweet tooth, Pune offers its Shrikhand (a burnt milk delicacy) and the seasonal AmrasPuri (thick mango juice with fried 'puris') complete the traditional Maharashtrian feast.

 

Festivals [2]

All the Indian festivals like Diwali, Janmashtami, Navaratri, Dashahara, Holi, Rakshabandhan, Christmas, Id are celebrated with the same excitement in Pune with no religion, language bars. But Pune is famous for its Ganesh festival.

 

Art, dance & music [2]

Pune is the birthplace of the poet-saint Tukaram (in Dehu) and Jnaneshvara (in Alandi), the author of the well-known commentary 'Jnaneshwari',on the "Bhagavad Gita". It is the home of great freedom fighters like Bal GangadharTilak, Agarkar and Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Jayant Narlikar, the famous contemporary scientist, is from Pune. Pune is the seat of North Indian Classical music. Annually, in the month of December, it hosts a three nightlong cultural program of vocal and instrumental classical music, called "Savai-Gandharva".

 

References

[1] http://dcmsme.gov.in/dips/IPS%20Pune%20New.pdf

[2] http://pune.nic.in/content/punecity/aboutpune.aspx

[3] https://www.maharashtratourism.net/cities/pune/history.html

[4] http://www.censusindia.co.in/district/pune-district-maharashtra-521

[5] https://theculturetrip.com/asia/india/articles/the-most-impressive-buildings-in-pune/

[6] http://puneheritage.in

[7] https://punetech.com/research-institutions-in-pune/

[8] http://www.educationworld.in/institution/pune/schools

[9] https://pmc.gov.in/en/sports-complex

[10] https://www.quora.com/What-is-a-list-of-the-best-shopping-malls-in-Pune

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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